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Robot Apocalypse

Professor Stephen Hawking has pleaded with world leaders to keep technology under control before it destroys humanity.

venerdì 28 agosto 2015

VANISHING POINT

Voyage into a black hole, depicted in the movie "Interstellar"
Black holes don't actually swallow and destroy physical information, according to an idea proposed today by Stephen Hawking at the Hawking Radiation conference being held at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Instead, they store it in a two-dimensional hologram.

Addressing a current controversy in physics about information in black holes, “I propose that the information is stored not in the interior of the black hole as one might expect, but on its boundary, the event horizon.”
The event horizon is a boundary around a black hole beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer, also known as “the point of no return” — where gravitational pull becomes so great as to make escape impossible.
Hawking is now suggesting that the information about any incoming particles passing through this event horizon is translated into a 2D hologram. “The idea is the super-translations are a hologram of the ingoing particles,” he said. “Thus they contain all the information that would otherwise be lost.”
That provides a new solution for the “black hole information paradox“: what happens to the information about the physical state of things that are swallowed up by black holes? Is it destroyed, as our understanding of general relativity would predict? If so, that would violate the laws of quantum mechanics.
Hawking said that also offers hope (at least for the information that represents you) if you happen to have fallen into a black hole — supporting the premise of the movie Interstellar. If the hole was large and rotating, “it might have a passage to another universe” via Hawking radiation.
“But you couldn’t come back to our universe. So although I’m keen on space flight, I’m not going to try that.”
The conference is co-sponsored by Nordita, the University of North Carolina (UNC), and the Julian Schwinger Foundation. UNC physicist Laura Mersini-Houghton was instrumental in assembling 32 of the world’s leading physicists to tackle the problem, which stems from contradictions between quantum mechanics and general relativity.

Hawking offers new solution to ‘black hole information paradox’ August 27, 2015

Black holes don't actually swallow and destroy physical information, according to an idea proposed today by Stephen Hawking at the Hawking Radiation conference being held at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. Instead, they store it in a two-dimensional hologram.
Everything in our world is encoded with quantum mechanical information; and according to the laws of quantum mechanics, this information should never entirely disappear, no matter what happens to it. Not even if it gets sucked into a black hole.
But Hawking's new idea is that the information doesn't make it inside the black hole at all. Instead, it's permanently encoded in a 2D hologram at the surface of the black hole's event horizon, or the field surrounding each black hole which represents its point of no return.
As we understand them, black holes are regions of space-time where stars, having exhausted their fuel, collapse under their own gravity, creating a bottomless pit that swallows anything approaching too closely. Not even light can escape them, since their gravitational pull is so infinitely powerful.
"The information is not stored in the interior of the black hole as one might expect, but in its boundary — the event horizon," he said. Working with Cambridge Professor Malcolm Perry (who spoke afterward) and Harvard Professor Andrew Stromberg, Hawking formulated the idea that information is stored in the form of what are known as super translations.
"The idea is the super translations are a hologram of the ingoing particles," Hawking said. "Thus they contain all the information that would otherwise be lost."
This information is emitted in the quantum fluctuations that black holes produce, albeit in "chaotic, useless form," Hawking said. "For all practical purposes the information is lost."
But in his lecture in Stockholm the previous night, Hawking also offered compelling thoughts about where things that fall into a black hole could eventually wind up.
"The existence of alternative histories with black holes suggests this might be possible," Hawking said. "The hole would need to be large and if it was rotating it might have a passage to another universe. But you couldn't come back to our universe.
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